Woman Infertility causes and help
There are more than three million women in the United States who cannot become pregnant. The problem of infertility appears to be confronting more women than ever before. According to the National Centers for Disease Control, this increase is partially attributable to an increase in sterility-causing diseases.
Cases of gonorrhea have increase tremendously and there are increase in the number of women using IUDs. This put them at increased risk for pelvic inflammatory disease, a major cause of infertility. According studies, many women may be unable to conceive because of infections that occurred while they were wearing an IUD.
The drop in fertility has also been attributed to the postponement of pregnancy into the 30s. This is because of career demands and uncertainty about the long-term stability of the spousal relationship.
Problems with ovulation are thought to be the cause of infertility in about 10 to 15 percent of all cases. Chronic diseases such as thyroid disease, uncontrolled diabetes, or liver disease usually cause infertility. These diseases may interfere with the complex mechanism of ovulation. In approximately 5 percent of the cases there is a problem with the cervix or cervical mucus.
Other factors include on-the-job exposure to chemicals and radiation and sustained strenuous exercise, such as marathon running, which can cause temporary (that is, reversible) infertility in some women even though their menstrual cycles may continue to be normal.
Endometrium is a condition where tissue that looks like endometrial tissue (the tissue that lines the uterus and is shed each month in menstruation) is located outside of the uterus. Endometriosis is usually located only on the pelvic organs surrounding the uterus. In rare instances it can be found in other places such as the upper abdomen or lung. These areas of endometriosis may bleed at the time of the menstrual period just as the uterine endometrium does. This may cause pain, and because there is no way for the blood to escape, scarring may develop.
This scarring may seal off the ovaries and prevent the egg from reaching the fallopian tube. Even if there are only small areas of endometriosis and the tubes and ovaries are not completely blocked, fertility may be reduced.Infertility related to tubal blockage and pelvic adhesion is on the rise.
Sexually transmissible infections, the widely use of intrauterine contraceptive devices and the increase in elective abortions are contributing factors of Infertility. The infections include gonorrhea, mycoplasma, and chlamydia. Women with intrauterine contraceptive devices may have chronic low-grade infections. Some may develop an acute severe infection or a pelvic abscess. Though severe pelvic infection was more common before abortions were legal, a mild infection is not unheard of after an elective abortion today. Specifically, abnormalities of the Fallopian tubes, including scarring from endometriosis or previous infections or surgery, or swelling from a current infection account for about 20 to 30 percent of all infertility problems.
A ruptured appendix may also cause pelvic infection and scarring of the Fallopian tubes. Pelvic adhesion may occur after surgery to remove ovarian cysts, fibroid, and tubal pregnancies or after any other lower abdominal or pelvic surgery.
Irregularities in the shape of the uterus can occasionally cause infertility, although they are more frequently associated with spontaneous abortions than with the inability to conceive. The most common cause of irregularity in the shape of the uterus is fibroid (benign fibrous growths of the uterus). Other causes are congenital or developmental abnormalities. Recently, some abnormalities in the shape of the uterus have been found in daughters of women who took the drug diethylstilbestrol (DES) during pregnancy.
Both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism and other hormonal abnormalities may cause infertility by unbalancing the delicate and complex regulation of the menstrual cycle. Severe illness of any sort (diabetes, liver disease) can also affect the normal cycle and cause infertility.
A vaginal infection may alter the cervical mucus and the pH of the vagina creating a hostile environment in which the sperm may be able to live for only a very short time.The presence of sperm antibodies in cervical mucus or vaginal secretions may cause infertility. There is controversy among physicians about how often this may be a factor because these antibodies may be found in people with normal fertility.
In some couples, however, these antibodies appear to kill or inactivate the sperm. There is a significant number of infertile couples who complete all of the standard testing without any obvious cause of infertility. Many of these couples eventually conceive. Unfortunately, some remain infer- tile. However, with advances in infertility testing, fewer and fewer cases of infertility remain unexplained.
Timing of intercourse is important. A woman with a 28-day cycle should have intercourse every other day from the tenth to the eighteenth day of her menstrual cycle. These are the days of her maximum fertility. A male with a low sperm count should get special intercourse timing instructions, as should the woman with a shorter or longer cycle.
Position during intercourse may also be important. Sperm may reach the cervix more easily when the woman, lying on her back, draws her knees up to encircle her partner’s hips. After his orgasm the woman should maintain this position for 10-15 minutes or relax with a pillow under her hips.